Korean war: Origins,war and aftermath

At the time of the Cold War, all the attention of the great powers was focused on central Europe. Among politicians and military strategists, there was a widely accepted view that the first major conflict between the two mutually opposed, emerging military-political blocs would come right there. The Berlin crisis and the civil war in Greece could easily have ignited Europe. Asia seemed to be far from the eyes of the public and the interests of great powers.

In China since the 1920s, there were two very strong, ideologically opposed parties: nationalists and communists. Nationalists were part of the bourgeoisie and middle class. They tried to protect the interests of the landowners, while liberating China from the domination. The Communists advocated agrarian reform, which attracted a huge number of peasants, as well as for the establishment of a political and economic system modeled on the neighboring Soviet Union. In the beginning, they entered the coalition, so that later they could have an open armed conflict. Enemies were suspended in 1937. because of a common resistance to Japan, which began to penetrate central China. After the collapse of imperial Japan, there was nothing to keep them occupied, so the old hostilities began to come out again. Soon a new civil war began, more bloody than the previous one, which would result in the victory of the Communists and the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. China will later assist all Communists in Korea by all means.

Retreating from China, Japan withdrew from Korea at the same time. The post-war future of Korea was the subject of numerous conferences held during the Second World War, beginning with the Cairo conference:

“Chiang Kai Shek, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met in Cairo to discuss the future of Asia. The result of the conference was the Cairo Declaration, which states that China, the United States and Great Britain are aware of the poorest position of the marod of Korea and are determined to make Korea free and independent. Roosevelt planned that Korea must be under the protection (tutelance) of the United States, China and the Soviet Union for a period of forty years before becoming independent. Stalin agreed in Tehran, but the mandate for tutelage was reduced to thirty, and later to twenty years.

“While the idea of ​​the allied occupation of Korea has long been part of the plan for its post-war decoration, the division of Korea was the product of a rapprochement agreement. Americans are bacilli atomic bomb in Japan on August 6th. The Soviet Union announced the war two days later. Red Army forces entered the northern part of Korea through Siberia, and there was fear that, if they were given a chance, they would occupy the whole. After the Nagasaki bombings on August 9, the Japanese government unconditionally surrendered on August 15th. As the Soviet forces advanced through Korea, and the closest US forces were stationed in Okinawa, the Americans had to do it quickly to prevent the entire peninsula from falling to the Soviets. As explained later, officers of the US Navy, Rask and Bondstil, looked at the map and saw that thirty-eight parallels split Korea into two roughly equal parts, while at the same time Seoul stays to the south. Truman approved the thirteenth August proposal. The proposal is immediately sent to Moscow. To the surprise of the whole, the Soviets accepted the proposal, although billions are in a position to take over Korea. It is important to note that the thirty-eighth parallel was an arbitrary line of a military-political nature, a line that did not correspond to any geographical, cultural or historical division of the country. ”

“There were at least three different currents that pretended to rule Korea after the end of the Japanese occupation. The Korean provisional government was in China, on the territory of Chiang Kai Shek’s nationalist, who suited her friendly, and most important, anti-Communist Korea. The Korean communists fought in the ranks of the Communist Party of China. There is another group of Korean communists in Russia, led by Kim Il Sung. In Korea there was no official party organization, so local communists were isolated from the liberation movements abroad. ”

At a conference in Moscow in December 1945, the Allies considered that Korea should be placed under the protection of Great Britain, the United States, the USSR and China. Koreans wanted independence, and they were not ready to wait another five years. Mass demonstrations were organized. The Soviets forced the Communists to accept tutelage and did not allow the participation of the forces that opposed him. Negotiations collapsed, and in 1946, two occupying zones began to crystallize with different administrations, which would gradually lead to the formation of two different states.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

“Immediately after North Korea’s occupation, the Russians began to create national committees in cooperation with the Korean Communists. Thus they made a peaceful transition of power. They brought with them several hundred Koreans who served in the Red Army to help them in the administration. All national committees were quickly taken over by the Communists. Local communists were too independent, and the Russians were appointed by the former Commander of the Eighty Eighth Brigade of the Red Army, Kim Il Sunga, as President of the North Korean Bureau of the Korean Communist Party. In February 1946, the Soviets were created by the Provisional National Committee of North Korea. The Committee nationalized the industry and carried out the agrarian reform. This solved the problem of millions of peasants who had worked on the feudal possessions of local landowners by then. In December, several communist parties united in the Workers’ Party of North Korea. Delegates from the National Committees were created by the Congress of National Committees, which chose the National Assembly. Step by step, a centralized government was formed. The new government mobilized workers, youth, women and intellectuals to create a new political, economic and social system under the leadership of the North Korean Workers’ Party. The North Korean Workers ‘Party changed its name and became the Workers’ Party of Korea after joining the Communist organizations of South Korea. After nationalization of the industry, the government began to implement two-year plans, which resulted in the growth of the economy. The North Korean regime had no problem with the legitimacy, unlike the regime from the south. Kim Il Sung was a national hero and freedom fighter. He did not have a significant opposition. The Korean Workers’ Party has grown into a mass organization of over 700,000 members. The economic system that was created with the Soviet assistance was favorable for mobilizing the population for the war. The confident North Korean government has resolved to unite the country … ”

Republic of Korea

“Unlike the perfectly executed Soviet occupation, the American occupation of South Korea has been characterized by confusion and lack of preparation. The Americans landed at Incheon on the eighth of September. They found the complicated Japanese occupying administrative system. Japanese officers deported sunsad to Japan. All power was transferred to the hands of the US Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK). The Americans were suspicious of the national committees that began to form soon after their arrival, because most of them were brutalized by communists and leftists. In the meantime, conservative landowners have formed the Democratic Party of Korea. The Americans soon put national committees out of the law. As negotiations on the unification of the two Koreas failed, the Americans began to create a centralized state. In February 1946, the Democratic Representative Council was formed, which was supposed to represent different political subjects, but it was the dominant conservatives, and in reality it had little influence. An Interim Legislative Assembly was established in August. These moves did not correct the tense political situation, which was accompanied by economic problems. Inflation was huge, industry was almost nonexistent, and the vast majority of the population was unemployed. ”

“The Americans soon formed the Korean National Police, led by right-wingers, members of the KDP. The march of the police was made by former collaborators, associates of the Japanese occupation authorities. The difficult economic situation was skillfully used by the Communists, infiltrating labor unions and advocating mass strikes. The South Korean police were bloody fighting with strikers, and the Communist leadership escaped to North Korea. A coalition was formed between the right-wing and moderate leftists, which was a short one. The leader of the left was killed, and the police did not much effort to find the perpetrator. Soon North Korea turned off power supply, which was even more complicated. South Korea began receiving US $ 116 million in economic aid from the United States. This improved the situation somewhat, but most of the problems remained unresolved. President Synghmann Rhee ruled authoritarianly, relying on the police and right-wing paramilitary formations. A few weeks after the Americans handed over power to the newly-formed South Korean government, a major uprising took place, which soon throttled, and it is thought that life was lost in it over thirty thousand people. At the end of October 1948, in the Parliament, I adopted a law on special penalties for strikers. This law was applied by the government to solve all kinds of real and imaginary enemies. In just over a year in prison there were over 30,000 political prisoners. Cleanliness was done in schools, government administration and institutions. In the spring of 1950, the number of political prisoners exceeded 60,000, the majority on charges of violating the National Security Act. All in all, the situation in South Korea was at the brink of a crack. ”

Road to War

“The Korean War is a direct consequence of the conflict of socialism and capitalism. The Soviet Union insisted on the world spread of communism, and the United States on suppressing communism and supporting friendly regimes. After the victory of the Communists in China, the Americans ceased to support Chiang Kai Shekha, as it was no longer seemingly to consolidate power in China. South Korea has become the latest line of defense against communism for the United States. After the transition of power, South Korea formed an army of 65,000 soldiers, trained by 500 US instructors. The South Korean army was armed with only light weapons, without tanks and aviation ”

“Unlike the Americans, the Soviets left a huge amount of weapons and heavy equipment, including tanks and artillery, after retreating from North Korea. Thousands of North Korean soldiers have been sent to the Soviet Union for training. But the key factor in North Korea’s power was the determination of her leadership, especially Kim Il Sung, to unite the state with force. “The North Korean leadership was convinced that it would quickly defeat the South with the help of a communist guerrilla active there. However, the guerrilla was limited to geographically small space and decimated by South Korean criminal expeditions. Kim was convinced that the war was the only way to unify the country. The North Korean army was strong, and it was getting stronger and stronger, with over 150,000 people under arms in 1950. Unlike the South Korean army, the North Korean army had a great war experience. At the end of 1946, the North Korean regime began sending volunteers to Mandzuri to help the communist forces there. Twenty percent of communist troops in Mandzuria were Koreans. With the victory of the Communists in China in 1949, tens of thousands of veterans returned to their homeland. Kim Il Sung was convinced that his powerful army would quickly defeat the South Korean army. Seoul was not far from the border, and there was a belief that the uprisings of the dissatisfied nation would break out across South Korea. Kim visited Moscow to consult with Stalin. Stalin was convinced that it was an easy and safe victory. The Soviets suited United Korea as a strategic buffer zone on the southern border, and as a way to draw Americans from Europe. Moscow has sent experts to help the North Korean army to develop plans for the attack. Mao Cedung agreed to send direct military aid to North Korea if this is required. Stalin gave approval for the attack, and Kim was only to set a date. At the border of the two Koreas, there were frequent sporadic conflicts of a local character, to which the North put a point ordering a general attack on the South. ”

Korean War

“On June 5, 1950, the Korean People’s Army, after the fierce artillery barrage, launched a full-scale assault across the entire length of the front to the positions of the South Korean army. Seoul fell after only two days of fighting. Better equipped, with artillery and tanks, and with great war experience, the North Korean army quickly made the poorly armed and worse-trained South Korean army withdrawal. The Americans sought permission from the United Nations Security Council for Intervention, which they received, as the Soviet Union boycotted the UN to protest that China’s location in the SBUN still held the nationalist regime from Taiwan. The SBUN resolution required the withdrawal of North Korea’s forces from South Korea and required the members of the United Nations to help the Republic of Korea’s army. UN troops led by the United States began to disembark on the South Korean coast on June 30. During that time, the Korean People’s Army has progressed steadily toward the south. They packed them into a narrow coastal belt around the coastal town of Pusan, where the South Korean government withdrew. With the arrival of the UN troops, the North Korean army was stopped, and soon forced to withdraw. The expectations of the North Korean command were not met, that if the South Korean army collapsed after the fall of Seoul, the subjugated people of South Korea did not rise to the general uprising against the exploiters. UN forces and the South Korean army, according to the plan of Genera Mak Arthur, landed at Incheon, thus attacking the Communists from the back. The North Korean army was crushed and a general retreat to the north began. Soon, Seoul was liberated, and by the end of September, the Communist forces were in total disarray. If the United States were willing to accept the pre-war status quo, the war would have ended even then. Unfortunately, the war has not ended. Mak Arthur wanted once and for all to destroy North Korea, and South Korean leaders saw this opportunity to finally unite the country. The SBUN resolution allowed only the expulsion of communist forces from South Korea, not the attack on North Korea. The Allies were afraid that China, or even the Soviet Union, could join the war. China, which did not have diplomatic relations with America, sent a warning through the Indian ambassador to Beijing that it would not tolerate American military presence at the border. On September 30, the South Korean army crossed the thirty-eighth parallel, wrecking the scattered enemy ranks, aimed at overthrowing the communist regime in Pyongyang and the establishment of a united Democratic Korea. Washington gave permission to MacArthur to destroy communist forces. The UN forces soon captured Pyongyang and a good part of North Korea, sabotaging communist forces along a narrow strip in the north, along the border with China. It was a bit praiseworthy for the Communists to withdraw from Korea, and to come to its unification, but the Chinese forces intervened. The Chinese leadership hesitated with intervention, but Mao’s militant militant, who did not want to tolerate the US presence at the border, prevailed. He wanted to expel US imperialists from Korea and to promote a revolutionary struggle in Asia. After Maou, the war would be good for the mobilization of the people under the new regime and the confirmation of his legitimacy. Chinese forces entered Korea discreetly, without attracting too much attention. UN forces were crushed and forced into a general withdrawal. In two weeks, the Chinese-Korean forces liberated Pyongyang and almost all of North Korea. They advanced to the south, crossed the thirty-eighth parallel and took Seoul again. UN forces and the Republic of Korea’s armies reorganized, halted the communist offensive, launched a counter-offensive, and re-liberated Seoul on March 15, 1951. The city was crossing four times in hand in less than a year. “[3] Soon began to negotiate a truce Chinese, North Korean and UN forces. The main problems were the creation of a demarcation line between the two Koreas, the creation of a demilitarized zone and the exchange of prisoners. Negotiations soon came to an end, as no party was willing to make concessions. “The war has turned into a position, so no side in the conflict could have gained an advantage. American aviation has compared North Korean cities with the land. The conflicts ended in the spring of 1953. President Eisenhower, on the American side, promised to end the war. Stalin’s death opened a chance for peace, because his heirs were not willing to continue the war. North Korea was the most important thing for Americans to stop bombing. So in 1953, all participants were ready to end the war. “[4]” The war has completely destroyed Korea. When Communists occupied Seoul for the first time, they formed national committees, confiscated the property of RK supporters, officials and “exploiters of capitalists”. I carried out the agrarian reform and freed political prisoners, who began to console the members of the police and officials of the Republic of Korea. Mass shooting of national enemies began. Following the withdrawal of the Communists from Pyongyang before the UN offensive, the South Korean army committed massive war crimes against the North Korean population, executing the massive massacre of the Communists and their sympathizers. It is believed that the South Korean army killed about 100,000 thousands of its citizens because of the suspicion of being Communists.” It is believed that the war in Korea took almost 1 500 000 lives. It has increased the dependence of South Korea on the United States. The state began to get bogged down by anti-communism. The United States soon began to help rebuild the economy. As far as DNR Korea is concerned, the war has created the so-called. Bunker’s mentality and isolationist foreign policy. The post-war period is characterized by mass mobilization, as well as mass indoctrination, constant warfare and constant rejection of hostilities with South Korea. The war, which began to unite the two Koreas, ended by deepening the divide even further. ”

CItations from:  Michael J. Seth,  A History of Korea, Rowmann & Littlefield publishers , Plimouth, United Kingdom

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